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Application examples include novel interaction techniques; interactions for special groups, places and contexts; collection and collation of personal data for personal use; living in information spaces; and augmented reality and virtual environments. Effective tools for creating and populating physical and virtual objects and spaces: For designers ranging from professionals to hobbyists, software tools are needed to support maker and do-it-yourself cultures, to facilitate seamless transition between physical and virtual worlds and objects, and to leverage interactive modelling and animation.

Design tools must support practices including sharing and collaboration, iterative prototyping, and stages of creative inception, refinement and deployment. Individuals and groups require tools for customization of interfaces to specific use cases, demographics, context and individual preferences, with as little training as possible.

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Individuals need tools to deploy their own approaches to information management. Designers of varying expertise need tools to create virtual and augmented environments, and to build social information spaces. Exploitation of quantum devices: The challenge involves exploiting quantum engineering for improved performance and efficiency of useful devices.

The challenge is to develop devices and applications that can be deployed with near-term impact to areas such as medicine, environmental monitoring, materials and chemical characterization, security, improved nanofabrication and metrology. Special-purpose quantum processors: A quantum computer is the ultimate quantum device and has broad applications, from breaking classical security protocols to machine learning. The challenge is to realize special-purpose quantum computers and in particular to deliver a well-working processor of qubits.

Examples include one optimized for running quantum simulations of materials and another for testing the robustness of quantum error correcting methods. These two building blocks are essential to the continued development of yet more complex and capable quantum processors.

In addition to new hardware devices, the challenge includes new algorithms for quantum computing, particularly for small, noisy processors. Canada is fortunate to have vast natural resources. These include renewable resources from forestry, fisheries and agriculture; world-class mineral deposits; and immense oil and gas reserves, including rapidly expanding tight hydrocarbon resources, primarily from low-permeability formations. In the face of the rapidly changing climate and an increasingly competitive global economy, there are critical challenges for responsible development and stewardship of these resources.

Foundational research at universities, in partnership with industry and government, will play a critical role in addressing natural resource and energy challenges throughout Canada. There are also exceptional opportunities to harness research synergies that cross-cut the mining and energy sectors. In the case of tight hydrocarbon reservoirs, technologies such as hydraulic fracturing have dramatically altered the energy landscape, yet urgent scientific, environmental, economic and societal issues remain. In the case of mining, reclamation and effective management of waste and water are of paramount importance for sustainable development.

By incorporating traditional knowledge and developing effective environmental solutions for resource development, Canada is poised to play an international leadership role, especially among Arctic nations. There is a need for transformative research focused on responsible development of key natural resources and energy technologies. Strategic challenges for research in Canada, outlined below, are linked by this common thrust. Innovative bioproducts to compete in the global economy: Canada possesses significant bioresources from forests, agriculture residues and organic waste streams.

There is an urgent need for less expensive and better performing bioproducts that can compete economically while reducing environmental impact. The research challenge is to significantly reduce cost, improve function, and enhance properties and performance by incorporating fibre and chemicals into products or substituting existing materials; producing and separating glucose and xylose from cellulosic materials; producing and separating phenolics and carbons from lignin; and incorporating biomass derived materials into hydrophobic matrices.

Not only are biofuels needed for current combustion engines, but specialized biofuels are also required for aviation. For remote communities, sustainable processes must be developed to produce bioenergy from locally sourced biomass. The research challenge is to develop new processes and products for these applications that are environmentally benign, including minimization of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions GHGs.

Reducing environmental impacts of extraction: The extraction of minerals and tight hydrocarbon resources has environmental impacts. Improved environmental performance focused on water management, GHGs and impact on lands will minimize cumulative effects, enhance social acceptability and realize economic benefits. Research challenges related to water management include treatment technologies, methods to minimize water use, water contamination, and understanding regionally integrated water sourcing and disposal systems. Research, technologies and detection methods aimed at reducing GHGs include those involving fugitive emissions, well casing vent flows, and pipeline and vehicle emissions.

Research needed to reduce the impact on lands includes geohazard analysis such as induced seismicity and storage area failure, mine waste management and reclamation, with emphasis on biodiversity and climate adaptation. Improving resource characterization and extraction efficiency: Methods for resource extraction need to be optimized to increase efficiency, reduce environmental footprint and maximize recovery.

Research is needed to characterize mineral and tight hydrocarbon resources, focusing on mapping, modeling and imaging; and to develop technologies to quantify rock properties, including hydraulic fracturing behaviour. Other areas of research are quantifying rock—fluid liquid and gas interactions related to hydraulic fracturing, understanding fluid dynamics during and after extraction, improving proppant technology and materials, and removing undesired minerals from mineral products.

Integrative approaches to resource extraction will be critical to minimize development costs and environmental impacts. Sustainable technologies for Arctic resource development: The Canadian Arctic has substantial resources, but they are situated in highly sensitive environments. As the region becomes more easily accessible due to climate change, increased resource development is anticipated.

Research is needed to develop and adapt sustainable technologies for transport systems, as well as other infrastructure. Additional work is required on the interaction between infrastructure and the accelerated degradation of permafrost due to climate change.

Further, research is needed to create cost-effective energy solutions for Arctic development, including renewable energy sources. Understanding environmental impacts of development in the Arctic: With increasing development in the Arctic, an improved understanding of associated environmental challenges and solutions is required.

Research is particularly needed to address and understand environmental sensitivities at the landscape and site level, in order to minimize impacts on ecosystems from shipping, mining, and oil and gas activities. Moreover, research on cumulative effects of resource development is required to ensure that ecosystem impacts remain below environmental thresholds. Methods to integrate traditional knowledge are of particular importance, as well as approaches that increase the understanding of shifting ecological baselines due to climate change.

Forest sector: Research is required for improving the accuracy and precision of forest inventories while reducing costs and increasing speed of data acquisition; correlating ecological knowledge with remote-sensing technology to predict and quantify the fibre characteristics of trees at the forest-stand level; the development of forest-renewal methods that maintain and support natural biodiversity while maximizing potential forest-site productivity; and genome mapping and breeding strategies in natural forest stands, and clonal management in fast growing plantations, for understanding physical and chemical fibre characteristics and forest stand renewal.

In addition, research is required to determine the impacts of climate change on forest diversity; new approaches to measuring environmental risk and uncertainty, given the growing complexity of forest management; and new tools and technologies for measuring the environmental costs and benefits of different land-use strategies in terms of their impact on forest diversity. Fisheries sector: Research is required to identify strains, varieties and populations that may be especially well suited to withstand current and future environmental stressors and whose genetic diversity could be used to develop and enhance aquaculture and fisheries and to determine the key environmental factors for maintaining and improving fisheries and restoring high-value fisheries and effective methodologies and technologies to facilitate remote mapping of aquatic areas, aquatic habitat types, habitats supporting fisheries and species diversity.

Optimization of this important resource can be aided by research into the exploitation of potential new fisheries to maximize productivity and ensure sustainability of the resource; and the development of new stock enhancement and management tools and improvement of existing ones so as to apply genomics and best practices to enhance biodiversity protection and restocking strategies.

The impact of climate change and pests could be addressed by research into environmental impact mitigation strategies, and methods for dealing with key risks to fisheries and aquaculture. Minerals sector: Research is required to help conduct exploration for strategic mineral commodities to secure domestic sources of key materials that are required for the next generation of energy-efficient products; to identify opportunities to create new commodity streams using poorly understood or under-represented mineral systematics; to understand tectonic context and regional tectonic setting of mineral deposits as a driver for mineral exploration; to find exploration methods for remote, undercover and deep mineral deposits; and to convert geoscience data into knowledge for mineral exploration.

Natural resource exploration, extraction, processing and management activities must be reconciled with the environmental changes and impacts that they can entail. Therefore research is needed on analytical tools for identifying types of mineral deposits whose extraction may result in negative environmental impacts; and on the assessment and reduction of the environmental impacts of mineral exploration, extraction and processing operations and of closing decommissioned mines and mining facilities.

Skip to content Skip to institutional links. Canon City is a gross little town, but it is affordable. Secure your valuables with a home, office, or gun safe from Cannon. Old Colorado City is the perfect blend of small town charm, historic character, and all the good times and excitement visitors have come to expect from a top Colorado destination. How to live the Good Life without giving up the rat race with people all over Britain having chosen to live a more simple life.

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Cloud Hotel. He wanted his family to have a good name in the town of roughly 16, people, but the Youngs had no Never have we seen houses so economical and rent so high. The list below is for areas in town, not all of Canon City. View 52 photos of this 3 bed, 2 bath, 4, Sq. Discover more every day. Street View, by Google Maps, is a virtual representation of our surroundings on Google Maps, consisting of millions of panoramic images. A lot of the facts are twisted and the extra characters really mess up the true storyline.

You can opt to use either the Dozens of inmates have been quarantined at the Territorial Correctional Facility in Canon City. We are looking forward to celebrating you and your staff during this special evening. Franklin Avenue is a good place to find a two-hour spot. Travel Trailers, 5th wheels, Bunkhouses, and Toy Haulers. News analyzed metro areas in the United States to find the best places to live based on quality of life and the job market in each metro area, as well as the value of living there and people's desire to live there.

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On paper, the 80D looks to be an improvement in practically every regard over the 70D of , especially Which is the best Canon lens for my camera? Outgrown your kit lens? Our round-up reveals the best Canon lenses for you, whatever The purpose of the GNND program is to improve the quality of life in targeted communities throughout the nation.

Water Quality Targeting Success Stories

Find the best places to stay in the Royal Gorge Region. This is a great place to build your resume, but if you are a millennial with a lot to offer, this place can be frustrating. Are you a dog lover who wants to know more about how to turn your passion into profit? There's lots of opportunity to earn money with dog boarding in Springboro, OH.

Can anyone tell us the pros and cons of living in or around the Canon City area? I encourage you to consider what we have to offer. Find nearby businesses, restaurants and hotels. We passed through Canon City, and from research that we've done, it's a place where you could stay busy working in construction, between Colorado Springs, Pueblo and Canon.

Does your family enjoy traveling If your production used Canon equipment, download Canon logos for your end-credit sequence. Country Green Apartments' ideal location places you in a mountain bowl along the Arkansas River Valley as it flows east from the Rocky Mountains and the mouth of the Royal Gorge. In many ways, the 6D Mark II is a fine choice for the landscape shooter.

Kaitlin Well, we're actually on a Colorado road trip, checking out prospective places to live. Article continues below. A surprise was my prevailing feeling after taking this little mighty wonder with me to the family farm in Rolla, North Dakota. We use cookies to provide you with the best possible experience in your interactions with Canon and on together in one place.

The city is on board and has constructed brand-new parking lots and is in the process of adding even more trailhead facilities. Good Work Guaranteed. But while this can be informative, every city has its own distinct opportunities and liabilities, and what worked for one city, with one set of industries and resources at one time, may be simply irrelevant or unavailable to another city. It is the only city in the United States outside of New Mexico to have a tilde in its name.

Stay where you play! The Hogbacks area in Canon City is home to a large network of old social trails. Good availability and great rates. That city is Canon City, Colorado, and it is described on the Prison Valley A prison town where even those living on the outside live on the inside. Great people, training and moral. Let's dig in and see just how it stacks up for some common types of photography. However, you can grow and learn as you develop and receive the training as you move forward.

Did we mention all of the truly significant climbing of the day is over by the time you reach Cripple Creek? The staff is said to be cute here. Jeff and his wife Linda live in Canon City, Colorado. Each album is a work of art, featuring vivid color, incredibly sharp detail, and a durable binding. The fabulous service is a great advantage of SomeWhere Saloon. No way I would live on the front range either.

There are live music concerts venues in Colorado that always seem to feature the most popular artists and bands. Continuing on in their legacy of powerful workhorse cameras, Canon has released the 5D Mark IV DSLR which is an outstanding still photography option and an able 4K-capable video machine. The winners will be revealed live and on television during the big event on September 19th. Dealing with the City Glow. Once in Live View mode you can choose from a variety of views and AF methods.

If you live on the Front Range, Canon City might be worth a visit. Oregon is best known for its forests, mountains, farms, and beaches. We just moved here at the beginning of December, but we love it so much already. Find the best bargains and money-saving offers, discounts, promo codes, freebies and price comparisons from the trusted Slickdeals community.

Visit Oklahoma City's most reliable source for breaking news. Whether you plan to browse the shops and galleries, enjoy fine dining or attend a seasonal event, a trip to Old Colorado City will be a richly rewarding experience. We often find ourselves chatting with strangers when we go to the stores. The city itself has an effective communication system in place delivering messages by email or text for anything that concern the public. Match made on Care. The Home of Heroes,? Find 69 photos of the Buckhorn Ln home on Zillow. She deceived the king into going on a chase for them while in secret she hid them.

United States - Best Colorado City? We've developed a suite of premium Outlook features for people with advanced email and calendar needs. The 1, sq. Aundrea Tidwell,. Your search for great deals and coupon savings ends here. The small town feel, community events, unique stores, decorated main street and special care for each other. Some major Internet providers in Canon City — CenturyLink included — have plans with data caps according to the most recent plan data.

If you are looking to get the most out of your Canon City visit, a stay in one of these vintage hotels will elevate your experience in this historic city. They re-named it My Brother's Place after a ficticious bar that Mike saw in a beer commercial.

Living with Water: Targeting Quality in a Dynamic World by Paul Pechan

She's an excellent agent. How do I take a picture of stars with Canon Rebel t6 with 50mm lens? The moon is a good place to start. Swipe left for slideshow. I cant believe how good my pink and white nails look!! This salon is also very clean, no concerns. If someone ask me to live there, probably I inmediatelly say "Yes, I wish it all my life! If you are looking for a new place to live, these 10 cities are worth considering. But that is precisely what the city has been doing to residents of Point Loma who live in the area near St.

Search Your City Local. There is a place in the U. Cnidarians are the simplest animals in which the cells are organised into tissues. Sea anemones are common in tidepools. Close up of polyps on the surface of a coral , waving their tentacles. If an island sinks below the sea, coral growth can keep up with rising water and form an atoll.

The mantle of the red paper lantern jellyfish crumples and expands like a paper lantern []. The Portuguese man o' war is a colonial siphonophore. Marrus orthocanna another colonial siphonophore, assembled from two types of zooids. Porpita porpita consists of a colony of hydroids []. Lion's mane jellyfish , largest known jellyfish []. Turritopsis dohrnii achieves biological immortality by transferring its cells back to childhood [] [].

The sea wasp is the most lethal jellyfish in the world []. Some of the earliest bilaterians were wormlike, and a bilaterian body can be conceptualized as a cylinder with a gut running between two openings, the mouth and the anus. Around the gut it has an internal body cavity, a coelom or pseudocoelom. Having a front end means that this part of the body encounters stimuli, such as food, favouring cephalisation , the development of a head with sense organs and a mouth.

Many bilaterian phyla have primary larvae which swim with cilia and have an apical organ containing sensory cells. However, there are exceptions to each of these characteristics; for example, adult echinoderms are radially symmetric unlike their larvae , and certain parasitic worms have extremely simplified body structures. The original bilaterian may have been a bottom dwelling worm with a single body opening. Protostomes from Greek for first mouth are a superphylum of animals. It is a sister clade of the deuterostomes from Greek for second mouth , with which it forms the Nephrozoa clade.

Protostomes are distinguished from deuterostomes by the way their embryos develop. In protostomes the first opening that develops becomes the mouth , while in deuterostomes it becomes the anus. Scalidophora penis worms and mud dragons. Worms Old English for serpents form a number of phylums. Different groups of marine worms are related only distantly, so they are found in several different phyla such as the Annelida segmented worms , Chaetognatha arrow worms , Phoronida horseshoe worms , and Hemichordata.


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All worms, apart from the Hemichordata, are protostomes. The Hemichordata are deuterostomes and are discussed in their own section below. The typical body plan of a worm involves long cylindrical tube-like bodies and no limbs. Marine worms vary in size from microscopic to over 1 metre 3. Many of these worms have specialized tentacles used for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide and also may be used for reproduction.

Some marine worms are tube worms , such as the giant tube worm which lives in waters near underwater volcanoes and can withstand temperatures up to 90 degrees Celsius. Platyhelminthes flatworms form another worm phylum which includes a class of parasitic tapeworms. Nematodes roundworms constitute a further worm phylum with tubular digestive systems and an opening at both ends. It has been estimated another million remain undescribed.

They are found in every part of the earth's lithosphere , from the top of mountains to the bottom of oceanic trenches. Giant tube worms cluster around hydrothermal vents. Nematodes are ubiquitous pseudocoelomates which can parasite marine plants and animals. Bloodworms are typically found on the bottom of shallow marine waters.

Molluscs Latin for soft form a phylum with about 85, extant recognized species. They are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat. The mollusc phylum is divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes. These classes include gastropods , bivalves and cephalopods , as well as other lesser-known but distinctive classes. Gastropods with protective shells are referred to as snails , whereas gastropods without protective shells are referred to as slugs.

Gastropods are by far the most numerous molluscs in terms of species. There are about 8, marine bivalves species including brackish water and estuarine species. A deep sea ocean quahog clam has been reported as having lived years [] making it the longest recorded life of all animals apart from colonial animals, or near-colonial animals like sponges.

Marine gastropods are sea snails or sea slugs. This nudibranch is a sea slug. Molluscs usually have eyes. Bordering the edge of the mantle of a scallop , a bivalve mollusc, can be over simple eyes. Common mussel , another bivalve. Cephalopods include octopus , squid and cuttlefish. About living species of marine cephalopods have been identified, [] and an estimated 11, extinct taxa have been described.

The nautilus is a living fossil little changed since it evolved million years ago as one of the first cephalopods. Reconstruction of an ammonite , a highly successful early cephalopod that appeared mya. Cephalopods, like this cuttlefish , use their mantle cavity for jet propulsion. Colossal squid , largest of all invertebrates []. Molluscs have such diverse shapes that many textbooks base their descriptions of molluscan anatomy on a generalized or hypothetical ancestral mollusc.

This generalized mollusc is unsegmented and bilaterally symmetrical with an underside consisting of a single muscular foot. Beyond that it has three further key features. Firstly, it has a muscular cloak called a mantle covering its viscera and containing a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion. A shell secreted by the mantle covers the upper surface.

Secondly apart from bivalves it has a rasping tongue called a radula used for feeding. Thirdly, it has a nervous system including a complex digestive system using microscopic, muscle-powered hairs called cilia to exude mucus. The generalized mollusc has two paired nerve cords three in bivalves. The brain , in species that have one, encircles the esophagus.

Most molluscs have eyes and all have sensors detecting chemicals, vibrations, and touch. Arthropods Greek for jointed feet have an exoskeleton external skeleton , a segmented body, and jointed appendages paired appendages. They form a phylum which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans.

Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments , each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments.

The evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period and is generally regarded as monophyletic. However, basal relationships of arthropods with extinct phyla such as lobopodians have recently been debated. Fossil trilobite. Trilobites first appeared about Ma. They were highly successful and were found everywhere in the ocean for Ma. The Anomalocaris "abnormal shrimp" was one of the first apex predators and first appeared about Ma. The largest known arthropod, the sea scorpion Jaekelopterus rhenaniae , has been found in estuarine strata from about Ma.

It was up to 2. Horseshoe crabs are living fossils , essentially unchanged for Ma. Extant marine arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus to the Japanese spider crab. Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a hemocoel , which accommodates their internal organs , and through which their haemolymph - analogue of blood - circulates; they have open circulatory systems.

Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments. Their nervous system is "ladder-like", with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and forming paired ganglia in each segment. Their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, and their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus. The respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong.

Many crustaceans are very small, like this tiny amphipod , and make up a significant part of the ocean's zooplankton. The Japanese spider crab has the longest leg span of any arthropod, reaching 5. The Tasmanian giant crab is long-lived and slow-growing, making it vulnerable to overfishing. Mantis shrimp have the most advanced eyes in the animal kingdom, [] and smash prey by swinging their club-like raptorial claws.

Arthropod vision relies on various combinations of compound eyes and pigment-pit ocelli : in most species the ocelli can only detect the direction from which light is coming, and the compound eyes are the main source of information. Arthropods also have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors, mostly based on modifications of the many setae bristles that project through their cuticles.

Arthropod methods of reproduction are diverse: terrestrial species use some form of internal fertilization while marine species lay eggs using either internal or external fertilization. Arthropod hatchlings vary from miniature adults to grubs that lack jointed limbs and eventually undergo a total metamorphosis to produce the adult form. In deuterostomes the first opening that develops in the growing embryo becomes the anus , while in protostomes it becomes the mouth.

Deuterostomes form a superphylum of animals and are the sister clade of the protostomes. The Saccorhytus mouth may have functioned also as its anus. Echinoderms Greek for spiny skin is a phylum which contains only marine invertebrates. The phylum contains about living species , [] making it the second-largest grouping of deuterostomes , after the chordates. Adult echinoderms are recognizable by their radial symmetry usually five-point and include starfish , sea urchins , sand dollars , and sea cucumbers , as well as the sea lilies.

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They are unique among animals in having bilateral symmetry at the larval stage, but fivefold symmetry pentamerism , a special type of radial symmetry as adults. Echinoderms are important both biologically and geologically.

Biologically, there are few other groupings so abundant in the biotic desert of the deep sea , as well as shallower oceans. Most echinoderms are able to regenerate tissue, organs, limbs, and reproduce asexually ; in some cases, they can undergo complete regeneration from a single limb. Geologically, the value of echinoderms is in their ossified skeletons , which are major contributors to many limestone formations, and can provide valuable clues as to the geological environment.

They were the most used species in regenerative research in the 19th and 20th centuries. Echinoderm literally means "spiny skin", as this water melon sea urchin illustrates. The ochre sea star was the first keystone predator to be studied. They limit mussels which can overwhelm intertidal communities. Sea cucumbers filter feed on plankton and suspended solids. The sea pig , a deep water sea cucumber, is the only echinoderm that uses legged locomotion. It is held by some scientists that the radiation of echinoderms was responsible for the Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

Aside from the hard-to-classify Arkarua a Precambrian animal with echinoderm-like pentamerous radial symmetry , the first definitive members of the phylum appeared near the start of the Cambrian. Hemichordates form a sister phylum to the echinoderms. They are solitary worm-shaped organisms rarely seen by humans because of their lifestyle. They include two main groups, the acorn worms and the Pterobranchia.

Pterobranchia form a class containing about 30 species of small worm-shaped animals that live in secreted tubes on the ocean floor. Acorn worms form a class containing about species that generally live in U-shaped burrows on the seabed, from the shoreline to a depth of metres. The worms lie there with the proboscis sticking out of one opening in the burrow, subsisting as deposit feeders or suspension feeders. It is supposed the ancestors of acorn worms used to live in tubes like their relatives, the Pterobranchia, but eventually started to live a safer and more sheltered existence in sediment burrows.

Acorn worms are more highly specialised and advanced than other worm-like organisms. They have a circulatory system with a heart that also functions as a kidney.


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Acorn worms have gill-like structures they use for breathing, similar to the gills of fish. Therefore, acorn worms are sometimes said to be a link between classical invertebrates and vertebrates.

Acorn worms continually form new gill slits as they grow in size, and some older individuals have more than a hundred on each side. Each slit consists of a branchial chamber opening to the pharynx through a U-shaped cleft. Cilia push water through the slits, maintaining a constant flow, just as in fish.

The three-section body plan of the acorn worm is no longer present in the vertebrates, except in the anatomy of the frontal neural tube, later developed into a brain divided into three parts. This means some of the original anatomy of the early chordate ancestors is still present in vertebrates even if it is not always visible. One theory is the three-part body originated from an early common ancestor of the deuterostomes, and maybe even from a common bilateral ancestor of both deuterostomes and protostomes. Studies have shown the gene expression in the embryo share three of the same signaling centers that shape the brains of all vertebrates, but instead of taking part in the formation of their neural system, [] they are controlling the development of the different body regions.

The chordate phylum has three subphylums, one of which is the vertebrates see below. The other two subphylums are marine invertebrates: the tunicates salps and sea squirts and the cephalochordates such as lancelets. Invertebrate chordates are close relatives to vertebrates. In particular, there has been discussion about how closely some extinct marine species, such as Pikaiidae , Palaeospondylus , Zhongxiniscus and Vetulicolia , might relate ancestrally to vertebrates. The lancelet , a small translucent fish-like cephalochordate , is the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates.

Tunicates, like these fluorescent-colored sea squirts , may provide clues to vertebrate and therefore human ancestry. Pyrosomes are free-floating bioluminescent tunicates made up of hundreds of individuals. Vertebrates Latin for joints of the spine are a subphylum of chordates. They are chordates that have a vertebral column backbone.

The vertebral column provides the central support structure for an internal skeleton which gives shape, support, and protection to the body and can provide a means of anchoring fins or limbs to the body. The vertebral column also serves to house and protect the spinal cord that lies within the vertebral column. Marine vertebrates can be divided into marine fish and marine tetrapods. Fish typically breathe by extracting oxygen from water through gills and have a skin protected by scales and mucous. They use fins to propel and stabilise themselves in the water, and usually have a two-chambered heart and eyes well adapted to seeing underwater, as well as other sensory systems.

Over 33, species of fish have been described as of , [] of which about 20, are marine fish. Early fish had no jaws. Most went extinct, but two groups survived: hagfish and lampreys. Hagfish form a class of about 20 species of eel -shaped, slime -producing marine fish. They are the only known living animals that have a skull but no vertebral column. Lampreys form a superclass containing 38 known extant species of jawless fish. Although they are well known for boring into the flesh of other fish to suck their blood , [] only 18 species of lampreys are actually parasitic.

Living hagfish remain similar to hagfish from around million years ago. Others consider them a sister group of vertebrates in the common taxon of craniata. Hagfish are the only known living animals with a skull but no vertebral column. Lampreys are often parasitic and have a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. The extinct Pteraspidomorphi , ancestral to jawed vertebrates. Pteraspidomorphi is an extinct class of early jawless fish ancestral to jawed vertebrates.

The few characteristics they share with the latter are now considered as primitive for all vertebrates. Around the start of the Devonian , fish started appearing with a deep remodelling of the vertebrate skull that resulted in a jaw. The appearance of the early vertebrate jaw has been described as "perhaps the most profound and radical evolutionary step in vertebrate history". Fish without jaws had more difficulty surviving than fish with jaws, and most jawless fish became extinct during the Triassic period.

Jawed fish fall into two main groups: fish with bony internal skeletons and fish with cartilaginous internal skeletons. Cartilaginous fish, such as sharks and rays , have jaws and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone. Megalodon is an extinct species of shark that lived about 28 to 1. It looked much like a stocky version of the great white shark , but was much larger with fossil lengths reaching Cartilaginous fishes may have evolved from spiny sharks.

The manta ray , largest ray in the world, has been targeted by fisheries and is now vulnerable. Sawfish are rays with long rostrums resembling a saw. All are now endangered or critically endangered []. The extinct megalodon resembled a giant great white shark. The Greenland shark lives longer than any other vertebrate. The largest extant fish, the whale shark , is now a vulnerable species.

Bony fish have jaws and skeletons made of bone rather than cartilage. Bony fish also have hard, bony plates called operculum which help them respire and protect their gills, and they often possess a swim bladder which they use for better control of their buoyancy. Bony fish can be further divided into those with lobe fins and those with ray fins. The approximate dates in the phylogenetic tree are from Near et al. Lobe fins have the form of fleshy lobes supported by bony stalks which extend from the body. It has the combination of both ray-finned and lobe-finned features, although analysis of the totality of its features place it closer to lobe-finned fish.

Apart from the coelacanths and the lungfishes, lobe-finned fishes are now extinct. The remaining bony fish have ray fins. These are made of webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines rays which can be erected to control the fin stiffness. This enables them to grab prey and draw it into their mouth. Their skeletal structure has evolved towards greater lightness. While teleost bones are well calcified , they are constructed from a scaffolding of struts, rather than the dense cancellous bones of holostean fish. Teleosts are found in almost all marine habitats.

Mandarin dragonet. A tetrapod Greek for four feet is a vertebrate with limbs feet. Tetrapods evolved from ancient lobe-finned fishes about million years ago during the Devonian Period when their earliest ancestors emerged from the sea and adapted to living on land. Marine tetrapods are tetrapods that returned from land back to the sea again. The first returns to the ocean may have occurred as early as the Carboniferous Period [] whereas other returns occurred as recently as the Cenozoic , as in cetaceans, pinnipeds , [] and several modern amphibians. They mostly require fresh water to reproduce.

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A few inhabit brackish water, but there are no true marine amphibians. Reptiles Late Latin for creeping or crawling do not have an aquatic larval stage, and in this way are unlike amphibians. As amniotes , reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry land.

Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals , with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Some reptiles are more closely related to birds than other reptiles, and many scientists prefer to make Reptilia a monophyletic group which includes the birds. Currently, of the approximately 12, extant reptile species and sub-species, only about of are classed as marine reptiles. Except for some sea snakes, most extant marine reptiles are oviparous and need to return to land to lay their eggs. Apart from sea turtles, the species usually spend most of their lives on or near land rather than in the ocean.

Sea snakes generally prefer shallow waters nearby land, around islands, especially waters that are somewhat sheltered, as well as near estuaries. The ancient Ichthyosaurus communis independently evolved flippers similar to dolphins. Some extinct marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs , evolved to be viviparous and had no requirement to return to land. Ichthyosaurs resembled dolphins. They first appeared about million years ago and disappeared about 90 million years ago. The terrestrial ancestor of the ichthyosaur had no features already on its back or tail that might have helped along the evolutionary process.

Yet the ichthyosaur developed a dorsal and tail fin which improved its ability to swim. During the Mesozoic many groups of reptiles became adapted to life in the seas, including ichthyosaurs , plesiosaurs , mosasaurs , nothosaurs , placodonts , sea turtles , thalattosaurs and thalattosuchians.

Marine reptiles were less numerous after mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous. Marine birds are adapted to life within the marine environment. They are often called seabirds. While marine birds vary greatly in lifestyle, behaviour and physiology, they often exhibit striking convergent evolution , as the same environmental problems and feeding niches have resulted in similar adaptations.

Examples include albatross , penguins , gannets , and auks. In general, marine birds live longer, breed later and have fewer young than terrestrial birds do, but they invest a great deal of time in their young. Most species nest in colonies , which can vary in size from a few dozen birds to millions. Many species are famous for undertaking long annual migrations , crossing the equator or circumnavigating the Earth in some cases.

They feed both at the ocean's surface and below it, and even feed on each other. Marine birds can be highly pelagic , coastal, or in some cases spend a part of the year away from the sea entirely. Some marine birds plummet from heights, plunging through the water leaving vapour-like trails, similar to that of fighter planes. They have air sacs under their skin in their face and chest which act like bubble-wrap , cushioning the impact with the water.

European herring gull attack herring schools from above. The first marine birds evolved in the Cretaceous period , and modern marine bird families emerged in the Paleogene. Mammals from Latin for breast are characterised by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding nursing their young. There are about living and recently extinct marine mammal species such as seals , dolphins , whales , manatees , sea otters and polar bears.

Both cetaceans and sirenians are fully aquatic and therefore are obligate water dwellers. Seals and sea-lions are semiaquatic; they spend the majority of their time in the water, but need to return to land for important activities such as mating , breeding and molting. In contrast, both otters and the polar bear are much less adapted to aquatic living. Their diet varies considerably as well: some may eat zooplankton ; others may eat fish, squid, shellfish, and sea-grass; and a few may eat other mammals. In a process of convergent evolution , marine mammals, especially cetaceans redeveloped their body plan to parallel the streamlined fusiform body plan of pelagic fish.

Front legs became flippers and back legs disappeared, a dorsal fin reappeared and the tail morphed into a powerful horizontal fluke. This body plan is an adaptation to being an active predator in a high drag environment. A parallel convergence occurred with the now extinct marine reptile ichthyosaur. Endangered blue whale , largest animal ever []. Bottlenose dolphin , highest encephalization of any animal after humans []. Dugong grazing on seagrass. Primary producers are the autotroph organisms that make their own food instead of eating other organisms.

This means primary producers become the starting point in the food chain for heterotroph organisms that do eat other organisms. Some marine primary producers are specialised bacteria and archaea which are chemotrophs , making their own food by gathering around hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and using chemosynthesis. However most marine primary production comes from organisms which use photosynthesis on the carbon dioxide dissolved in the water.

This process uses energy from sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide [] : — into sugars that can be used both as a source of chemical energy and of organic molecules that are used in the structural components of cells. The principal marine primary producers are cyanobacteria , algae and marine plants. The oxygen released as a by-product of photosynthesis is needed by nearly all living things to carry out cellular respiration. In addition, primary producers are influential in the global carbon and water cycles.

They stabilize coastal areas and can provide habitats for marine animals. The term division has been traditionally used instead of phylum when discussing primary producers, but the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants now accepts both terms as equivalents. Cyanobacteria are a phylum division of bacteria which range from unicellular to filamentous and include colonial species. They are found almost everywhere on earth: in damp soil, in both freshwater and marine environments, and even on Antarctic rocks.

The first primary producers that used photosynthesis were oceanic cyanobacteria about 2. Because oxygen was toxic to most life on Earth at the time, this led to the near-extinction of oxygen-intolerant organisms , a dramatic change which redirected the evolution of the major animal and plant species. Originally, biologists thought cyanobacteria was algae, and referred to it as "blue-green algae". The more recent view is that cyanobacteria is a bacteria, and hence is not even in the same Kingdom as algae.

Most authorities exclude all prokaryotes , and hence cyanobacteria from the definition of algae. Algae is an informal term for a widespread and diverse group of photosynthetic protists which are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic. Marine algae can be divided into six groups:. Unlike higher plants, algae lack roots, stems, or leaves.

They can be classified by size as microalgae or macroalgae. Microalgae are the microscopic types of algae, not visible to the naked eye. They are mostly unicellular species which exist as individuals or in chains or groups, though some are multicellular. Microalgae are important components of the marine protists discussed above , as well as the phytoplankton discussed below. They are very diverse.